European Journal of Sustainable Development http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd en-US editor@ecsdev.org (Prof. Gian Paolo Caselli) contact@ecsdev.org (Diamantina Allushaj) Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:32:46 +0200 OJS 3.2.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Limitation of Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment: A Review http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1303 <p>Water is nature resource that is essential for all life, for the functioning of ecosystems, and also for the human society. Sustainable use of water resource is important for sustainable development of human society. Water scarcity can lead to conflicts between different water users. Therefore, several sustainability assessment tools were developed in recent years. Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment, which is a part of Water Footprint Assessment methodology, is one of them. Each sustainability assessment tool has its own limitations. It is important to know these limitations because incorrect application of sustainability assessment can lead to erroneous or improper decisions. In this article, risks connected to the Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment are reviewed and discussed in several examples. Individual parts are focused on blue, green, and grey water sustainability assessment. The article contributes to the scientific debate on limits of Water Footprint Sustainability Assessment as the key element of everyday applications, identification of needs of future research and subsequent development of new or improved procedures of sustainability assessment in the framework of Water Footprint Assessment.</p> <p>Keywords: volumetric water footprint; sustainability assessment; sustainable development; limitation of methodology</p> Libor Ansorge, Lada Stejskalová, Dagmar Vološinová, Jiří Dlabal Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1303 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Innovative Methods of Assessing the Efficiency of Internet Communications of Enterprises http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1304 <p>There are a large number of marketing communication tools that can increase the competitiveness of the enterprise by representing the advantages of the enterprise or its product over competitors on the Internet market. The main forms of enterprise promotion on the Internet are the website of the enterprise, search engine marketing, external company`s activity on the Internet, brand promotion on the Internet, Rich-media. The Internet, as a platform for advertising, is ahead of other media in terms of growth. Therefore, assessing the efficiency of advertising, in particular Internet advertising, as a tool for enhancing the product competitiveness, is an important task for business specialists. In analysing the advertising activities of domestic enterprises, we see that tools such as print, television and radio advertising are less in demand among advertisers, while the volumes of Internet advertising are growing many times over. It is obvious that the pandemic crisis phenomenon caused by the covid-19 virus affected the working innovative methods of enterprises of all spheres and industries, many of them switched to remote work, separate from the consumer, and consumers physically distanced themselves for security purposes and began spending more time on the Internet and on social networks. The study improved the innovative methods of assessing the efficiency of the implementation of Internet communications using indicators "Objectives and key result - OKR", "Key performance indicators - KPI", "Key success indicators - KSI", "Balanced score cards - BSC", "Search distribution coefficient ","Net Promoter Score", "Number of subscribers/channels", "Share of valuable outputs" as criteria. The importance of assessing business process and effective functioning of key indicators is substantiated, its measurement requirements are determined. All indicators are considered over time in order to be able to justify their value, to track the change of indicators in the dynamics, as all indicators should stimulate the implementation of important actions for the enterprise.</p> <p>Keywords: Internet marketing, Internet communications, methods of assessing the efficiency of Internet communication tools</p> Alona Tanasiichuk, Svitlana Kovalchuk, Kateryna Sokoliuk, Serhii Sokoliuk, Larysa Liubokhynets, Svitlana Sirenko Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1304 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Addressing Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction through ICT and EU Assistance: The Case of Philippine Local Governance http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1305 <p>Developing countries are gravely challenged by the adverse effects of climate change and natural disasters. The Philippines is considered as one of the most vulnerable and disaster-prone countries in the world. The European Union (EU) as a development partner extends support to the Philippines on climate change. While there are global and national initiatives to take action on these issues, the challenge is how local governments can engage communities to address these environmental threats. The paper poses the following questions: (1) What initiatives did the Philippine national government undertake to address climate change and disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) in the Philippines? (2) What assistance does the EU provide to the Philippines in tackling climate change? (3) In what ways is information and communications (ICT) used by local governments as a mechanism to engage their constituents in dealing with climate change and natural disasters? Documentary analysis of Philippine laws on ICT, climate change, and disaster risk reduction and management are employed to determine the policy framework of the Philippines as a case. Desktop research is undertaken to evaluate the content of selected local government websites on disaster management and to identify the forms of EU technical assistance to the Philippines on climate change. While national policies exist to deal with climate change and disaster management, initiatives may take a backseat given the current pandemic.</p> <p>Keywords: climate change, disaster risk reduction and management, Philippines, information &amp; communications technology, local governance, EU assistance</p> Ma. Divina Gracia Z. Roldan Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1305 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Female Entrepreneurship Model, a Sustainable Solution for Crisis Resilience http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1306 <p>Entrepreneurs have always been the engine of the whole economy, but the vast majority of them have been men. And as society has evolved, social or entrepreneurial behavior patterns have been redefined so that we can now look at the impact gender can have on leadership and its sustainability. And when would it be more appropriate to analyze sustainability than in times of crisis? Therefore, we have now, one year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, undertaken a research based on a questionnaire as a research tool, disseminated in the Romanian entrepreneurial environment, by means of which we have been able to outline the analysis and conclusions regarding the business model that supports sustainable development, especially in times of crisis. Thus, through it, we have analyzed the impact that the COVID-19 pandemic has had on the development of entrepreneurial activity and we have extracted the "pattern" of changes that entrepreneurs have undertaken for resilience during the crisis period. Our empirical research, undertaken in March 2021, showed that the majority of affected entrepreneurs have implemented changes to their pre-pandemic management model (85%). Of the total 320 respondents, more than 65% represent women owned businesses. We have analyzed what are the main entrepreneurial traits that guide female entrepreneurial behavior. At the same time, for a sustainable development, we have determined the traits of the female entrepreneurial model, which can be successful in times of crisis.</p> <p><em>Keywords: crisis resilience, female entrepreneurship, sustainable model, leadership</em></p> Alina Birsan, Raluca Ghinea, Lorian Vintila, Cristina State Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1306 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Impact of The Tax Revenue Structure on The Economic Growth of The Republic of Kosovo http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1307 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This scientific paper aims to analyze the impact of the structure of tax revenues on economic growth in the Republic of Kosovo. Based on the fact that taxes are unavoidable obligations for natural and legal persons, then the purpose of this paper was to see how they affect the case of the Republic of Kosovo.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The empirical data that have been analyzed in this study are mainly secondary data which have been collected from the data of annual reports published by the Tax Administration of Kosovo, the Central Bank and the Kosovo Agency of Statistics, while the part of the literature review is referring to studies by other authors who have studied and analyzed similar tax-related issues.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Based on this scientific research and empirical findings, we can conclude that the structure of tax revenues and tax policy reform at the end of 2015 has positively affected economic growth in the Republic of Kosovo for the analyzed period (2010-2020).</p> <p><strong>Practical implications:</strong> This scientific research will serve as a good scientific reference basis for the Government of the Republic of Kosovo that the proper reform of fiscal policies for the benefit of businesses and households will have a substantial impact on savings and investments. On the other hand, the impact of the revenue structure from raising taxes has a positive impact on economic growth. As an important scientific result, regular payment of taxes by taxpayers will contribute to filling the consolidated state budget. Their proper channeling will suffice to improve infrastructure and facilitate the lives of citizens through adequate provision of public goods.</p> <p><strong>Originality:</strong> This study presents real and consistent results regarding the conclusions for the analyzed period (2010-2020).</p> <p>Keywords: tax structure, tax policy, economic growth, VAT</p> Halit Shabani, Valdrin Misiri, Duresa Kilaj, Fisnik Morina Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1307 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Ethics Education in Business Schools: Emerging Issues and Challenges http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1308 <p>Ethical education is a perpetual learning process, lasting from childhood until the end of life. Human beings continually learn about ethical values, behavioural justification, and moral conscience, whether it is from the family, which is the basic and fundamental cell of society in its entirety, or from politics or one’s workplace. University students who prepare for an occupation with a high level of social responsibility have a chance to acquire knowledge about morality, ethics, and values. Managers and those studying management also need to consider ethics. Ethics education proves to be vital in various professions, and the learning process in this field could be more effective in the training programmes of those professions. Universities which offer management programmes include ethics education and teach the knowledge and skills of ethical behaviour, which students go on to practice in their respective workplaces. The question, however, is, “What does this school offer in ethics education?” The main goal of this article is to explore which areas of ethics in tertiary education in the Czech Republic are offered in management degrees, and how this is connected with true ethical leadership.</p> <p>Keywords: Education, ethics, ethical leadership, management</p> Jiří Bláha, Slavomíra Klimszová, Lucjan Klimsza Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1308 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Academic Integrity in Education in the Context of Sustainable Development of Society http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1309 <p>It is beyond argument that education is a cornerstone of the sustainable development of any society and state. The more educated society and its individual members are, the more capable the state and its economy and security and technology systems are of giving a targeted response to challenges of today’s world. However, education should not be seen as an end in itself. Certain quality requirements and standards should be respected in the educational process, one of them being academic integrity. Academic misconduct is firmly condemned both at educational institutions and in society, and occasionally the lawfulness of acquired education may be questioned. This kind of misconduct represents a phenomenon leading to several threats, and it can be interpreted as an intellectual property theft, which compromises the quality of education, thereby reducing a state’s capacity for development, and undermines confidence in educational institutions and persons who have committed misconduct, adversely affecting society in general. It should be emphasised that, if ignored, academic misconduct facilitates legal nihilism in the long term. Therefore, one of priorities in education should be associated with solidifying academic integrity as a component of sustainable development. In the light of the above, this article analyses the understanding of academic integrity and how students can be punished for academic misconduct in the context of sustainable development, for which purpose internal regulations of major higher education institutions of the Republic of Latvia have been examined.</p> <p>Keywords: academic integrity, liability for academic misconduct, right to education, sustainable development of the state</p> Inga Kudeikina, Ivans Jānis Mihailovs, Juris Zīvarts Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1309 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Multi-Dimensional Assessment of a Bavarian and Czech University: A Case Study of Sustainability Implementation http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1310 <p>Evaluating the effectiveness of sustainability implementation at Higher Education Institutions is still challenging, due to less multi-dimensional approaches. Purpose is to present a new assessment - Sustainable Maturity model (SuMa model) for evaluating the implementation of sustainability at two universities in a border region with different maturity profiles through an internationally designed case study. Therefore, internal documents were analyzed, and interviews were conducted. The pilot implementation of this model showed that it can also be used internationally to evaluate the current state of sustainability implementation. As the assessment results prove, the critical point is effectiveness of strategy implementation and communication. Also, a lack of common understanding of sustainability still exists. The case study shows that the cultural and historical differences that exist in rural areas matters for implementing sustainability. The new SuMa assessment-model is a very suitable tool that delivers relevant indicators for measurable and comparable results over time and, above all, helps and supports the implementation of sustainability across all activities in the higher education landscape. It thus offers the possibility of being a standardized tool used worldwide.</p> <p>Keywords: Higher Education Institutions; Sustainability; Strategy Implementation; Assessment</p> Alexander Herzner, Dita Hommerová Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1310 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 An Assessment of Orientation on Effective Natural Ventilation for Thermal Comfort in Primary School Classrooms in Enugu City, Nigeria http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1311 <p>The current harsh climatic and high thermal conditions observed across the globe due to climate change is a challenge for indoor thermal comfort in buildings. In most developing nation, educational buildings where formal teaching and learning is conducted are designed to function without mechanical ventilation in an attempt to save energy costs hence relying solely on Natural ventilation. However, the effects of orientation on effective natural ventilation in educational buildings in the hot-humid tropical environments have not been adequately explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orientation of the classroom buildings with respect to cardinal and wind directions on effective natural ventilation desired for thermal comfort in buildings of public primary schools in the city of Enugu, Nigeria. It adopted a combination of experimental and descriptive survey research design. Instruments for data collection were two thermo-anemometer data logging device (AZ 9871) for determining both indoor and outdoor temperatures, wind velocities and relative humidity of classrooms of selected 60 public primary school building in the metropolis based on stratified sampling technique. Data analysis was done using linear regression analysis, the global coefficient of ventilation and building orientation standards. The research results showed that there was a correlation between classroom building orientations and effective natural ventilation coefficient and that the mean natural ventilation efficiency of 80% above the 60% global ventilation efficiency standard was achieved. In addition, orientation of classroom buildings in terms of inlet window planes to the dominant wind direction had positive significant effect on natural ventilation efficiency, invariably influencing the thermal comfort conditions of the investigated classrooms. The research concludes that adequate attention should be given to the orientation in classroom buildings especially in the hot humid tropical environments by architects and building designers to ensure thermal comfort is achieved for effective teaching and learning.</p> <p>Keywords: Building orientation, Natural ventilation, Tropical environment, Classroom buildings, Thermal comfort</p> Emeka J. Mba, Chinwe G. Sam-amobi, Francis O. Okeke Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1311 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 A Country of Bricks – How to Transform Waste into Viable Products for Construction http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1312 <p>We live in complex times, in a world where the difference between rich and poor people is enormous. The distance between the two social categories increases from year to year, especially when in a certain year, events appear that can be included in the category of natural disasters and that have a very big impact on the security and well-being of the population. The study we propose considers two elements: an analysis of poor people, who do not have a stable shelter and who suffer greatly from it, but also a product we are working on and which could have a positive impact, both on them, as well as on the environment. The study we propose is based on data provided by EUROSTAT and the National Institute of Statistics (NSI), in order to determine the number and distribution of people who do not have a house or have a disused building in which they live. Based on the values ​​obtained in the period 2000-2019 we can determine, equally, the dynamics of declining population security (lack of housing or improper housing), as well as the positive impact on the environment, if this product will be implemented nationally. Attention must be focused on how to make the future product, brick. This attention is necessary because we use, in the construction of future bricks, raw material that may contain various bacteria that can, in turn, endanger the lives of the population, if the construction process is not checked at any time and if certain are not used. substances intended to destroy bacteria before the actual composition of the product and its assembly. On the one hand, the realization of this product will offer an extra chance in the fight against poverty by ensuring an optimal living environment. Building a house for people in the social category of poor people is a chance for them to start a new life. Every individual needs the security of a place to consider at home. On the other hand, the realization of this product has certain benefits for the environment. Based on the principle of the circular economy, the waste that currently pollutes most surfaces in Romania can be transformed into bricks and used to build houses or sell them to our neighbors. In this way, the quantities of waste stored in landfills can be reduced by up to 60-70%. At the end of the analysis and description of the product, we formulated certain courses of action in order to streamline the selective collection and increase the number of bricks, as well as certain courses of action that may be the basis of a future regional development strategy.</p> <p>Keywords: Social Security, Circular economy, Ecology, Regional development</p> Constantin-Iulian Tănașcu, Robert-Andrei Costache, Lorian Ovidiu Vintilă Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1312 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Changes in Shopping Behavior Under the Aspect of Sustainability and the COVID-19 Pandemic. http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1313 <p>Since the beginning of 2020, governments around the world have taken measures to contain the novel COVID 19 pandemic. These measures have changed many aspects of public life. The introduction of mask requirement in points of sale and the call for social distancing raises the question of how these conditions affect the shopping behavior of consumers. As part of this study, a written online survey was carried out with students from the Schwäbisch Hall campus of Heilbronn University. The aim is to research the adapted purchasing behavior under the new situation towards increased online shopping as well as the inclusion of sustainability aspects in the purchase decision. In summary, it can be stated that consumers mainly order clothing, electronics and books online. Since the beginning of the COVID 19 pandemic, more and more online purchases have been made across all product groups, with those articles that were previously in greater demand online recorded the greatest relative growth in the pandemic situation. The main reasons for this are the fact that shopping is simple and uncomplicated as a hybrid between the advantages of online trading and COVID 19 related measures. The willingness to support the local brick-and-mortar retailers who switched to online sales in the wake of the pandemic is only present to a limited extent.<em>&nbsp;</em></p> <p>Key Words: Sustainability, COVID 19, retailer, costumer behavior, empirical study</p> Daniela Ludin, Wanja Wellbrock, Wolfgang Gerstlberger, Erika Müller, Silas Noller, Sebastian Ruchti Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1313 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Scrutinizing the Trends and Indexes of the Knowledge Economy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1315 <p>This study focusses on the concepts of significance to the knowledge economy and its characteristics in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Qualitative and quantitative research methodology design has been incorporated to validate the study. The outcome of the study exhibited that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has achieved progress according to the research and development index. The rate of expenditure as a ratio from the Gross Domestic Product is still negligent and modest in comparison with the international expenditure rates. It has been recommended to adopt an effective mechanism for the consolidation of the relations between the scientific research institutions and the productive and service sectors.<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Keywords: Knowledge economy, digital economy, human development, information technology, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Nadia Yusuf, Tariq Zubair Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1315 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Integrating the Sustainable Development Goals into a Region’s Smart Specialisation Strategy through Corporate Responsibility http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1316 <p>The United Nations’ 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the accompanying 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) have been widely adopted in EU policies, such as the European Green Deal, and Member States, highlight the need for responsible and sustainable investments by the business sector. The present paper argues that in the EU framework where development policies are sufficiently decentralised at the level of Regions, the materialization of “shared value” from business towards the achievement of SDGs can be accomplished via close cooperation between regional governance authorities and the business sector itself, in the spirit of SDG 17 (“Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development”). In this framework, EU Regions shall support the identification of regional industries and/or market segments that guarantee innovation potentials and regional comparative advantages. This entrepreneurial discovery process, in the context of Regional Smart Specialisation Strategies, shall be followed by private investments, exploiting the relevant business opportunities and creating “shared value” towards the achievement of SDGs.</p> Constantine Manasakis, Evangelos Taliouris Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://ojs.ecsdev.org/index.php/ejsd/article/view/1316 Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0200