An Assessment of Orientation on Effective Natural Ventilation for Thermal Comfort in Primary School Classrooms in Enugu City, Nigeria
Keywords:Building orientation, Natural ventilation, Tropical environment, Classroom buildings, Thermal comfort
The current harsh climatic and high thermal conditions observed across the globe due to climate change is a challenge for indoor thermal comfort in buildings. In most developing nation, educational buildings where formal teaching and learning is conducted are designed to function without mechanical ventilation in an attempt to save energy costs hence relying solely on Natural ventilation. However, the effects of orientation on effective natural ventilation in educational buildings in the hot-humid tropical environments have not been adequately explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of orientation of the classroom buildings with respect to cardinal and wind directions on effective natural ventilation desired for thermal comfort in buildings of public primary schools in the city of Enugu, Nigeria. It adopted a combination of experimental and descriptive survey research design. Instruments for data collection were two thermo-anemometer data logging device (AZ 9871) for determining both indoor and outdoor temperatures, wind velocities and relative humidity of classrooms of selected 60 public primary school building in the metropolis based on stratified sampling technique. Data analysis was done using linear regression analysis, the global coefficient of ventilation and building orientation standards. The research results showed that there was a correlation between classroom building orientations and effective natural ventilation coefficient and that the mean natural ventilation efficiency of 80% above the 60% global ventilation efficiency standard was achieved. In addition, orientation of classroom buildings in terms of inlet window planes to the dominant wind direction had positive significant effect on natural ventilation efficiency, invariably influencing the thermal comfort conditions of the investigated classrooms. The research concludes that adequate attention should be given to the orientation in classroom buildings especially in the hot humid tropical environments by architects and building designers to ensure thermal comfort is achieved for effective teaching and learning.
Keywords: Building orientation, Natural ventilation, Tropical environment, Classroom buildings, Thermal comfort
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