Digital Exclusion in the Labour Market in European Countries: Causes and Consequences


  • Izabela Czaja
  • Maria Urbaniec



Changes in the labour market in Europe, as well as globally, evolve and are caused by many factors, the impact of which is difficult to predict. Technological changes, the universality of communication, and control solutions requiring new skills and advanced IT knowledge on programming of cooperating devices result in the exclusion from the labour market of people unable to handle advanced machines and devices. Accelerating technological changes may increase the number of those excluded. The purpose of this article is to identify the causes and effects of technological exclusion on the labour market in European countries. In order to achieve this research goal, a review of mainstream literature will be conducted followed by document-based research and statistical databases. The results of this analysis show that digital exclusion may result not only from lack of individual access to technology, but also from lack of skills or the ability to use technology, which leads to social exclusion or no access to jobs. This proves that attitudes towards modern technologies on the labour market in the context of finding or creating jobs and sources of income are varied and dependent on various factors.

Keywords: labour market, digital divide, digital exclusion, digital skills, causes, consequences, DESI




How to Cite

Czaja, I., & Urbaniec, M. (2019). Digital Exclusion in the Labour Market in European Countries: Causes and Consequences. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 8(5), 324.